Petrik, Paula. (1992) The Youngest Fourth Estate: The Novelty Toy Printing Press and Adolescence, 1870-1886

This chapter examines amateur newspapers usually produced by middle-class schoolboys between ages 12-16.  After the Novelty Press became available (a toy printing press that cost between $15-$50), the number of these publications skyrocketed.  The chapter analyzes the stories in these papers with a main focus on issues of race and gender and not consumer culture.


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